Chromosomal disorders are relatively common and they result from the gain, loss, inversions or translocations of visible amounts of genetic material.
Chromosomal defects are commonly detected in abortuses, congenital disorders, mental retardation, infertility and certain types of cancers. Numerical and many
structural chromosomal defects can be identified by traditional karyotyping; however, FISH is used effectively for advanced testing. Cytogenetic testing helps in
diagnosis of a genetic conditions and exploring treatment options.